The vertebral column is formed by 34 vertebrae, separated from each other by an intervertebral disc. It can be divided into 4 segments that correspond to the four parts into which the human trunk is divided –
- neck (cervical section)
- thorax (thoracic section)
- abdomen (lumbar section)
- pelvis (pelvic section)
The vertebral column, also called spine is the primary support of the human body and that of all vertebrate living beings in general.back pain
Diseases of the spine requiring laminectomy
The pathologies that most frequently affect this part of our body are –
Rheumatoid arthritis – it is a chronic inflammatory disease of the connective tissue. It causes swelling, pain, and degeneration of the joint affected by the pathology. The joint tissue that is most affected by this condition is the synovial membrane.
Cervicalgia – it is a musculoskeletal disorder that affects the cervical tract of the spine, often accompanied by muscular rigidity, limitation of movement and headaches.
Cervical whiplash – it is a trauma connected to sudden extension followed by an equally rapid movement in flexion (typical of the automotive accident). This type of injury can be followed by headaches and dizziness, and extreme pain in the cervical tract of the spine and the upper part of the back.
Herniated disc – is the result of a dislocation followed by leakage of material typically contained in the intervertebral disc. This causes tissue in the injured fibers of the annulus to come into contact with the nerves in the spinal canal.
Lumbago – it is generally a localized pain in the lower part of the back, which can appear gradually or suddenly and acutely following an effort or an incorrect movement.
Lumbar hyperlordosis – it is a postural deformation of the spine, it occurs when the width of the lumbar curve is more than its normal physiology.
Osteoporosis – it is a condition in which the skeleton is subject to loss of bone mass and resistance due to nutritional, metabolic or pathological factors. The result is a decrease in bone density and changes to the bone architecture. In these cases, there is a higher risk of pathological fractures.
Scoliosis – it is a permanent, lateral and rotational deviation of the spine, which leads to both aesthetic and functional alterations.
The best spine surgeon in Chennai is Dr. A. B. Govindaraj. He treats patients at Fortis Malar Hospital and is an expert in back surgery related to every ailment above.
Decompression of the vertebral canal
The decompression of the vertebral canal or laminectomy is an intervention aimed at resolving the compression of the vertebral canal that can manifest itself for multiple causes – hypertrophy of the joints, ligaments, alterations of the vertebral body, presence of disc protrusions. Compression of the vertebral canal involves compression of the nerve structures present within the canal.
What is spinal canal decompression?
The decompression of the vertebral canal is an intervention aimed at resolving the compression of the vertebral canal. There are two therapeutic options for the resolution of vertebral canal compression: in cases of mild compression characterized by slight symptoms usually, conservative treatment is indicated. In cases of more severe compression, surgery is generally recommended.
How is the decompression of the vertebral canal performed?
While in cases of mild compression a conservative treatment is usually indicated, in the most severe cases surgery is instead recommended. The decompression surgery of the vertebral canal consists of enlargement of the vertebral canal by removing the vertebral laminae with decompressive laminectomy. Very often it is also necessary to partially grind the facet joints of the vertebrae, as they are often themselves the cause of compression of the vertebral canal. To prevent future vertebral instability in these cases, a fixation with screws and bars is also performed in the bones affected by decompression.
The patient may be required to undergo blood and radiographic examinations or specialist visits in order to avoid complications during and after surgery.
The surgery is usually performed, except in some cases, under general anesthesia. It is, therefore, necessary to follow the rules of preparation required for surgical operations under general or local anesthesia.
Recovery after surgery
In general, after the laminectomy operation, convalescence is minimal. The day after surgery the patient is discharged and will gradually be able to resume normal activities.
It is necessary to remain active, within limits set by the physiotherapist, and immediately start moving correctly.